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4D Printing Volume 2.epub


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Abstract:Significant advances have been made in recent years in the materials development of liquid-based 4D printing. Nevertheless, employing additive materials such as nanoparticles for enhancing printability and shape memory characteristics is still challenging. Herein, we provide an overview of recent developments in liquid-based 4D printing and highlights of novel 4D-printable polymeric resins and their nanocomposite components. Recent advances in additive manufacturing technologies that utilise liquid resins, such as stereolithography, digital light processing, material jetting and direct ink writing, are considered in this review. The effects of nanoparticle inclusion within liquid-based resins on the shape memory and mechanical characteristics of 3D-printed nanocomposite components are comprehensively discussed. Employing various filler-modified mixture resins, such as nanosilica, nanoclay and nanographene, as well as fibrous materials to support various properties of 3D printing components is considered. Overall, this review paper provides an outline of liquid-based 4D-printed nanocomposites in terms of cutting-edge research, including shape memory and mechanical properties.Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); shape memory (SM); polymer nanocomposites; stereolithography (SLA); digital light processing (DLP); material jetting (MJ); direct ink writing (DIW)


Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.


Three-dimensional (3D) and Four-dimensional (4D) printing emerged as the next generation of fabrication techniques, spanning across various research areas, such as engineering, chemistry, biology, computer science, and materials science. Three-dimensional printing enables the fabrication of complex forms with high precision, through a layer-by-layer addition of different materials. Use of intelligent materials which change shape or color, produce an electrical current, become bioactive, or perform an intended function in response to an external stimulus, paves the way for the production of dynamic 3D structures, which is now called 4D printing. 3D and 4D printing techniques have great potential in the production of scaffolds to be applied in tissue engineering, especially in constructing patient specific scaffolds. Furthermore, physical and chemical guidance cues can be printed with these methods to improve the extent and rate of targeted tissue regeneration. This review presents a comprehensive survey of 3D and 4D printing methods, and the advantage of their use in tissue regeneration over other scaffold production approaches.


Figure 4. Components of the three main bioprinting techniques: (A) inkjet bioprinting, (B) extrusion bioprinting, and (C) laser assisted bioprinting (LAB).


CMR volumetric and functional metrics are now established as valuable prognostic markers in PH. This imaging modality is increasingly used to assess treatment response and improves risk stratification when incorporated into PH




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